This is the description of a Code 45 as set on GM products It is an indication of a rich mixture as indicated by the oxygen sensor readings.
Circuit description: The ECM supplies a voltage of about .45 volts between the appropriate terminals of the sensor. (If measured with a ten megohm DVM, this may read as low as .32 volt). The O2 sensor varies the voltage within a range of about one volt, if the exhaust is rich, down thru about .10 volt, if exhaust is lean.
The sensor is like an open circuit and produces no voltage, when it is below about 360 degrees C, 600 degreeF. An open sensor circuit, or a cold sensor, causes Open Loop operation.
1.) Code 45 is set when the O2 sensor signal voltage remains above .7 volts for 30 seconds or more and in "closed loop".
2.) Engine time after start is one minute or more.
3.) Throttle position between 2 % and 20 %.
1.) The code 45 for rich exhaust is most likely caused by one or more of the following:
a. fuel pressure - system will go rich, if pressure is too high. The ECM can compensate for some increase. However, if it gets too high, a code 45 will be set.
b. Leaking injector or rich injector - perform an injector balance test. Check for fuel contamination in the oil..
HEI shielding - an open ground ckt 453 may result in EMI, will result in induced electrical "noise". The ECM looks at this noise as reference pulses. The additional pulses result in a higher than actual engine speed signal. The ECM then delivers too much fuel, causing the system to go rich. The engine tachometer will, also, show higher than actual engine speed, which can help in diagnosing this problem.
d. Canister purge - check for fuel saturation. If full of fuel, check canister control and hoses.
e. MAP sensor - an output that causes the ECM to sense a higher than normal manifold pressure (low vacuum) can cause the system to go rich. Disconnecting the MAP sensor will allow the ECM to set a fixed value for the MAP sensor. Replace the sensor if the rich condition goes away when the sensor is disconnected.
f. TPS - an intermittent TPS output will cause the system to go rich, due to a false indication of the engine accelerating.
g. O2 sensor contamination - Inspect oxygen sensor for silicone contamination from coolant, lead contamination from fuel or improper RTV sealant. Silicone contamination will be indicated by a Code 45 and lean drivability conditions and a powdery white deposit on the sensor. The ECM will then reduce the amount of fuel delivered to the engine causing a severe surge drivability problem.
Common failure modes
Lambda probes have a limited lifespan since the exposed sensor element is subjected to high temperatures which causes fatigue over time. Probes become sluggish, failing to react quickly to changes in the condition of the exhaust gases. This can be caused by contamination from the engine, fuel or additives. One common fault is silicon buildup on the probe sensor. A common source of silicon contamination is through the use of silicone sealant in repairing water system leaks. Lead build-up from the use of lead additives or leaded petrol will also damage the probe, as will carbon build-up from excessive burning of engine oil. Phosphorus in the burnt oil is also a specific damaging contaminant (but the phosphorus is part of a very beneficial additive called ZDDP which as of 2005 is yet to be replaced with a less 'damaging' (to the sensor or emissions equipment) yet equally effective (in protecting the motor life) substitute. It would be expected that a probe would last for 3 years or 40,000 miles (about 64,000 km), but it has been observed that probes will last for up to 3 times this length. [Also, oxygen sensors have been used successfully for 2 years of racing with leaded gas when the sensor is put into a non-leaded gas burning vehicle to 'burn' off the lead then putting it back, etc.
Check for a leaking fuel pressure regulator by checking the vacuum line to the regulator. If there is fuel in the vacuum line, replace the regulator.